Research Scientists

Robert P. Schwartz

Robert P. Schwartz
Medical Director/Senior Research Scientist

Degree: M.D., University of Padua, Italy
Phone: 410-837-3977 ext. 276
Fax: 410-752-4218
Email:


Research Interests

Dr. Schwartz, FRI’s Medical Director, is an addiction psychiatrist and former Director of the Division of Alcohol and Drug Abuse in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Maryland School of Medicine. His research interests include entry and engagement in drug abuse treatment, pharmacotherapy of opioid dependence, and health services research. He is Principal Investigator of two National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) funded clinical trials examining: (1) a novel approach to re-engineering the clinical structure of methadone treatment as compared to standard treatment delivery; and, (2) Screening, Brief Intervention Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) in New Mexico in which a brief intervention is provided by a counselor as compared to a novel computer program. He is Co-Investigator on a study examining buprenorphine for re-entering prisoners and is the Co-Principal Investigator (with Dr. Maxine Stitzer from Johns Hopkins University) on the Mid-Atlantic Node of the NIDA Clinical Trials Network. Dr. Schwartz serves on the NIH Center for Scientific Review’s Health Services Organization and Delivery Study Section.

Selected Publications

Gordon, M. S., Kinlock, T. W., Schwartz, R. P., Couvillion, K. A., Sudec, L. J., O’Grady, K. E., & Vocci, F. J. (in press). Buprenorphine treatment for probationers and parolees. Substance Abuse.

Gordon, M. S., Kinlock, T.W., Schwartz, R. P., Fitzgerald, T. T., O'Grady, K. E., Vocci, F. J. (in press). A randomized controlled trial of prison-initiated buprenorphine: prison outcomes and community treatment entry. Drug Alcohol Depend.

Gryczynski, J., Kelly, S. M., Mitchell, S. G., Kirk, A., O'Grady, K. E., Schwartz, R. P. (In press). Validation and performance of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) among adolescent primary care patients. Addiction.

Gryczynski, J., Mitchell, S. G., Gonzales, A., Moseley, A., Peterson, T. R., Ondersma, S. J., O'Grady, K. E., Schwartz, R. P. (In press). A randomized trial of computerized vs. in-person brief intervention for illicit drug use in primary care: Outcomes through 12months. J Subst Abuse Treat.

Gryczynski, J., Schwartz, R. P., Mitchell, S.G., O'Grady, K. E., Ondersma, S. J. (in press). Hair drug testing results and self-reported drug use among primary care patients with moderate-risk illicit drug use. Drug Alcohol Depend.

Holtyn, A. F., Koffarnus, M. N., DeFulio, A., Sigurdsson, S. O., Strain E. C., Schwartz R. P., Silverman, K. (in press). Employment-based abstinence reinforcement promotes opiate and cocaine abstinence in out-of-treatment injection drug users. J Appl Behav Anal.

Holtyn, A. F., Koffarnus, M. N., DeFulio, A., Sigurdsson, S. O., Strain, E. C., Schwartz, R. P., Leoutsakos, J. M., Silverman, K. (in press). The therapeutic workplace to promote treatment engagement and drug abstinence in out-of-treatment injection drug users: a randomized controlled trial. Prev Med.

Mitchell, S. G., Schwartz, R. P., Alvanzo, A. A, Weisman, M. S., Kyle, T. L., Turrigiano, E. M., Gibson, M. L., Perez, L., McClure, E. A., Clingerman, S., Froias, A., Shandera, D. R., Walker, R., Babcock, D. L., Bailey, G. L., Miele, G.M., Kunkel, L. E., Norton, M., Stitzer, M. L. (in press). The Use of Technology in Participant Tracking and Study Retention: Lessons Learned from a Clinical Trials Network Study. Subst Abus.

Schwartz, R. P., Gryczynski, J., Mitchell, S. G., Gonzales, A., Moseley, A., Peterson, T. R., Ondersma, S. J., O'Grady, K. E. (in press). Computerized versus in-person brief intervention for drug misuse: a randomized clinical trial. Addiction.

Bellamoli, E., Manganotti, P., Schwartz, R. P., Rimondo, C., Gomma, M., Serpelloni, G. (2014). rTMS in the treatment of drug addiction: an update about human studies. Behav Neurol, 2014:815215. PubMed PMID: 24803733; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4006612.

Gryczynski, J., Mitchell, S.G., Jaffe, J. H., O'Grady K, E., Olsen Y. K., Schwartz R. P. (2014). Leaving buprenorphine treatment: patients' reasons for cessation of care. J Subst Abuse Treat, 46(3):356-61. PubMed PMID: 24238714; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3947058.

Kelly, S. M., Gryczynski, J., Mitchell, S. G., Kirk, A., O'Grady, K. E., Schwartz, R. P. (2014). Concordance between DSM-5 and DSM-IV nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis use disorder diagnoses among pediatric patients. Drug Alcohol Depend, 140:213-6. PubMed PMID: 24793367; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4070874.

Kelly, S. M., Gryczynski, J., Mitchell, S. G., Kirk, A., O'Grady, K. E., Schwartz, R. P. (2014). Validity of brief screening instrument for adolescent tobacco, alcohol, and drug use. Pediatrics, 133(5):819-26. PubMed PMID: 24753528; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4006430.

Peters, E. N., Schwartz, R. P., Wang, S., O'Grady, K. E., Blanco C. (2014). Psychiatric, psychosocial, and physical health correlates of co-occurring cannabis use disorders and nicotine dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend, 134:228-34. PubMed PMID: 24183498; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3865597.

Schwartz R. P., Alexandre P. K., Kelly S. M., O'Grady, K. E., Gryczynski, J., Jaffe, J. H. (2014). Interim versus standard methadone treatment: a benefit-cost analysis. J Subst Abuse Treat, 46(3):306-14. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2013.10.003. Epub 2013 Oct 14.PMID:24239030.

Teruya, C., Schwartz, R. P., Mitchell, S. G., Hasson, A. L., Thomas, C., Buoncristiani, S. H., Hser, Y-I., Wiest, K., Cohen, A. J., Glick, N., Jacobs, P., McLaughlin, P., & Ling, W. (2014). Patient perspectives on buprenorphine/naloxone: A qualitative study of retention during the Starting Treatment with Agonist Replacement Therapies (START) study. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 46(5):412-26. doi: 10.1080/02791072.2014.921743. PMID: 25364994.

Blanco, C., Iza, M., Schwartz, R. P., Rafful, C., Wang, S., & Olfson, M. (2013). Probability and predictors of treatment-seeking for prescription opioid use disorders: a national study. Drug Alcohol Depend, 131(1-2), 143-148.

Blanco, C., Rafful, C., Wall, M. W., Jin, C. J., Kerridge, B., & Schwartz, R. P. (2013). The latent structure and predictors of non-medical prescription drug use and prescription drug use disorders: a national study. Drug Alcohol Depend, 133(2), 473-479.

Defulio, A., Stitzer, M., Roll, J., Petry, N., Nuzzo, P., Schwartz, R. P., et al. (2013). Criminal justice referral and incentives in outpatient substance abuse treatment. J Subst Abuse Treat, 45(1), 70-75.

Gordon, M. S., Kinlock, T. W., Couvillion, K. A., Schwartz, R. P., Wilson, M. E., & O’Grady, K. E. (2013). Gender differences among prisoners with pre-incarceration heroin dependence participating in a randomized clinical trial of buprenorphine treatment. J Offender Rehabil, 52(5), 376-391.

Gordon, M. S, Kinlock, T. W., Schwartz, R. P., Couvillion, K. A., O'Grady, K. E. (2013). The Severity, Frequency, and Variety of Crime in Heroin-Dependent Prisoners Enrolled in a Buprenorphine Clinical Trial. Prison J, 93(4):390-410.

Gryczynski, J., Jaffe, J. H., Schwartz, R. P., Dušek, K. A., Gugsa, N., Monroe, C. L., O'Grady, K. E., Olsen, Y. K., Mitchell, S. G. (2013). Patient perspectives on choosing buprenorphine over methadone in an urban, equal-access system. Am J Addict, 22(3):285-91.

Gryczynski, J., Mitchell, S. G., Jaffe, J. H., Kelly, S. M., Myers, C. P., O'Grady, K. E., Olsen, Y. K., Schwartz, R. P. (2013). Retention in methadone and buprenorphine treatment among African Americans. J Subst Abuse Treat, 45(3):287-92.

Kelly, S. M., O'Grady, K. E., Jaffe, J. H., Gandhi, D., & Schwartz, R. P. (2013). Improvements in outcomes in methadone patients on probation/parole regardless of counseling early in treatment. J Addict Med, 7(2), 133-138.

Kinlock, T. W., Gordon, M. S., Schwartz, R. P., O'Grady, K. E. (2013). Individual Patient and Program Factors Related to Prison and Community Treatment Completion in Prison-Initiated Methadone Maintenance Treatment. J Offender Rehabil, 52(8):509-528.

Mitchell, S. G., Gryczynski, J., O'Grady, K. E., & Schwartz, R. P. (2013). SBIRT for adolescent drug and alcohol use: current status and future directions. J Subst Abuse Treat, 44(5), 463-472.

Mitchell, S. G., Gryczynski, J., Schwartz, R. P., O'Grady, K. E., Olsen, Y. K., & Jaffe, J. H. (2013). A randomized trial of intensive outpatient (IOP) vs. standard outpatient (OP) buprenorphine treatment for African Americans. Drug Alcohol Depend, 128(3), 222-229.

Schwartz, R. P., Gryczynski, J., O'Grady, K. E., Sharfstein, J. M., Warren, G., Olsen, Y., Mitchell, S. G., Jaffe, J. H. (2013). Opioid agonist treatments and heroin overdose deaths in Baltimore, Maryland, 1995-2009. Am J Public Health, 103(5):917-22.

Schwartz, R. P., Gryczynski, J., O'Grady, K. E., Sharfstein, J. M., Warren, G., Olsen, Y. K., Mitchell, S. G., Jaffe, J. H. (2013) Schwartz et al. respond. Am J Public Health. 2013 103(8):e2-3.Epub 2013 Jun 13.

Schwartz, R. P., Stitzer, M. L., Feaster, D. J., Korthuis, P. T., Alvanzo, A. A., Winhusen, T. M., et al. (2013). HIV rapid testing in drug treatment: comparison across treatment modalities. J Subst Abuse Treat, 44(4), 369-374.

Serpelloni, G., Gomma, M., Genetti, B., Zermiani, M., Rimondo, C., Mollica, R., Gryczynski, J., O'Grady, K. E., Schwartz, R. P. (2013). Italy’s electronic health record system for opioid agonist treatment.
J Subst Abuse Treat, 45(2):190-5.

Coviello, D. M., Cornish, J. W., Lynch, K. G., Boney, T. Y., Clark, C. A., Lee, J. D., Friedmann, P. D., Nunez, E. D., Kinlock, T. W., Gordon, M. S., Schwartz, R. P., & O’Brien, C. P. (2012). A multi-site pilot study of extended-release injectable naltrexone treatment for previously opioid-dependent parolees and probationers. Substance Abuse, 33(1), 48-59.

Friedmann, P. D., Schwartz, R. P. (2012). Just call it “treatment.” Addiction Science & Clinical Practice, 7(1), 10.

Gonzales, A., Westerberg V. S., Peterson, T., Moseley, A., Gryczynski, J., Mitchell, S. G., Buff, G., Schwartz, R. P. (2012). Implementing a state-wide SBIRT service in rural health settings: New Mexico SBIRT. Substance Abuse. 33(2):114-23. PMCID: PMC3325793.

Gryczynski, J., Kinlock, T. W., Kelly, S. M., O’Grady, K. E., Gordon, M. S., & Schwartz, R. P. (2012). Opioid agonist maintenance for probationers: Patient-level predictors of treatment retention, drug use, and crime. Substance Abuse, 33(1), 30-39.

Kelly, S. M., Schwartz, R. P., O’Grady, K. E., Gandhi, D., & Jaffe, J. H. (2012). Impact of methadone with v. without drug abuse counseling on HIV risk: 4- and 12-month findings from a clinical trial. Journal of Addiction Medicine, 6(2), 45-152. PMCID: PMC3322294.

Mitchell, S. G., Gryczynski, J., Peterson, T., Gonzales, A., Moseley, A., & Schwartz, R. P. (2012). Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) for substance use in a school-based program: Services and outcomes. American Journal on Addictions, 21, S5-S13.

Mitchell, S. G., Gryczynski, J., Schwartz, R. P., O’Grady, K. E., Olsen, Y., Jaffe, J. H. (2012). A randomized trial of intensive outpatient (IOP) vs. standard outpatient (OP) buprenorphine treatment for African Americans. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 128(3), 222-229.

Mitchell, S. G., Kelly, S. M., Brown, B. S., O’Grady, K. E., Schwartz, R. P. (2012). HIV sex-risk behaviors among in- v. out-of treatment heroin-addicted adults. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 38(4), 328-333.

Mitchell, S. G., Kelly, S. M., Gryczynski, J., Myers, C. P., Jaffe, J. H., O’Grady, K. E., Olson, Y. K., & Schwartz, R. P. (2012). African-American patients seeking treatment in the public sector: Characteristics of buprenorphine v. methadone patients. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 122, 55-60. PMCID: PMC3251709.

Schwartz, R. P., Kelly, S. M., O’Grady, K. E., Gandhi, D., & Jaffe, J. H. (2012). Randomized trial of standard methadone treatment compared to initiating methadone without counseling: 12-month findings. Addiction, 107, 943-952. PMCID: PMC3319854.

Gryczynski, J., Mitchell, S. G., Peterson, T., Gonzales, A., Moseley, A., & Schwartz, R. P. (2011). The relationships between services delivered and substance use outcomes in New Mexico’s Screening, Brief Intervention, Referral and Treatment (SBIRT) Initiative. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 118(2-3), 152-157. PMCID: PMC3158968.

Gryczynski J, Schwartz R. P., Salkever D. S., Mitchell S.G., Jaffe J. H. (2011). Patterns in admission delays to outpatient methadone treatment in the US. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 41(4), 431-9. [PMCID: PMC3205308].

Katz, E. C., Brown, B. S., Schwartz, R. P., O’Grady, K. E., King, S. D., & Gandhi, D. (2011). Transitioning opioid-dependent patients from detoxification to long-term treatment: Efficacy of intensive role induction. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 117(1), 24-30.

Kelly, S. M., O’Grady, K. E., Mitchell, S. G., Brown, B. S., & Schwartz, R. P. (2011). Predictors of methadone treatment retention from a multi-site study: A survival analysis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 117(2-3), 170-175.

Schwartz, R. P., Kelly, S. M., O’Grady, K. E., Gandhi, D., & Jaffe, J. H. (2011). Interim methadone treatment compared to standard methadone treatment: 4-Month findings. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 41(1), 21-29. PMCID: PMC3110526.

Schwartz, R. P., Kelly, S. M., O'Grady, K. E., Mitchell, S. G., & Brown, B. S. (2011). Antecedents and correlates of methadone treatment entry: A comparison of out-of-treatment and in-treatment cohorts. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 115(1-2), 23-9. PMCID: PMC3059350.

Kelly, S. M., O'Grady, K. E., Brown, B. S., Mitchell, S. G., & Schwartz, R. P. (2010). The role of patient satisfaction in methadone treatment. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 36(3), 150-154. [PMCID: PMC2938880].

Kelly, S. M., O'Grady, K. E., Schwartz, R. P., Peterson, J. A., Wilson, M. E., & Brown, B. S. (2010). The relationship of social support to treatment entry and engagement: The community assessment inventory. Substance Abuse, 31(1), 43-52 [PMCID: PMC2856126].

Kinlock T. W., Gordon M. S., Schwartz R. P., Fitzgerald T. T. (2010). Developing and Implementing a New Prison-Based Buprenorphine Treatment Program. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 49(2), 91-109. [PMCID: PMC2868193].

Peterson, J. A., Schwartz, R. P., Mitchell, S. G., Reisinger, H. S., Kelly, S. A., O'Grady, K. E., Brown, B. S., & Agar, M. H. (2010). Why don’t out-of-treatment individuals enter methadone treatment programs? International Journal of Drug Policy, 21, 36-42 [PMCID: PMC2790538].

Wilson M. E., Schwartz R. P., O'Grady K. E., Jaffe J. H. (2010). Impact of interim methadone maintenance on HIV risk behaviors. Journal of Urban Health, 87(4), 586-91. [PMCID: PMC2900571].

Gryczynski, J., Schwartz, R. P., O'Grady, K., & Jaffe, J. H. (2009). Treatment entry among individuals on a waiting list for methadone maintenance. American Journal of Drug & Alcohol Abuse, 35(5), 290-294.

Gryczynski, J., Schwartz, R. P., O'Grady, K., & Jaffe, J. H. (2009). Dropout from interim methadone and subsequent comprehensive methadone maintenance. American Journal of Drug & Alcohol Abuse, 35, 394-398.

Kelly, S. M., Schwartz, R. P., O'Grady, K. E., Mitchell, S. G., Reisinger, H. S., Peterson, J. A., Agar, M. H., & Brown, B. S. (2009). Gender differences among in- and out-of-treatment opioid-addicted individuals. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 35, 38-42.

Kinlock, T. W., Gordon, M. S., Schwartz, R. P., Fitzgerald, T. T., & O'Grady, K. E. (2009). Methadone maintenance for prisoners: Results at twelve-months post-release. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 37, 277-285.

Mitchell, S. G., Kelly, S. M., Brown, B. S., Reisinger, H. S., Peterson, J. A., Ruhf, A., Agar, M. H., O’Grady, K. E.& Schwartz, R. P. (2009). Uses of diverted methadone and buprenorphine by opioid-addicted individuals in Baltimore, Maryland.  The American Journal on Addiction, 18(5), 346-355.

Mitchell, S. G., Kelly, S. M., Brown, B. S., Reisinger, H. S., Peterson, J. A., Ruhf, A., Agar, M. H., & Schwartz, R. P. (2009). Incarceration and opioid withdrawal: The experiences of methadone patients and out-of-treatment heroin users. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 41(2), 145-152.

Reisinger, H. S., Schwartz, R. P., Mitchell, S. G., Peterson, J. A., Kelly, S. M., O'Grady, K. E., Marrari, E. A., Brown, B. S., & Agar, M. H. (2009). Premature discharge from methadone treatment: Patient perspectives. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 41(3), 285-296.

Schwartz, R. P, Jaffe J. H., O'Grady, K. E., Kinlock, T. W., Gordon, M. S., Kelly, S. M., Wilson, M. E., & Ahmed, A. (2009). Interim Methadone Treatment: Impact on Arrests. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 103, 148-154.

Schwartz, R. P., Kelly, S. M., O'Grady, K. E., Mitchell, S. G., Peterson, J. A., Reisinger, H. S., Agar, M. H., & Brown, B. S. (2008). Attitudes toward buprenorphine and methadone among opioid-dependent individuals. The American Journal on Addictions, 17(5), 396-401.

Schwartz, R. P., Kelly, S. M., O'Grady, K. E., Peterson, J. A., Reisinger, H. S., Mitchell, S. G., Wilson, M. E., Agar, M. H. & Brown, B. S. (2008). In-treatment v. out-of-treatment opioid dependent adults: Drug use and criminal history. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 34(1), 17-28.

Albizu-Garcia, C., Caraballo Correa G., Hernandez Viver, A. D., Kinlock, T. W., Gordon, M. S., Antron Avila, C., Colón Reyes, I., Schwartz, R. P. (2007). Buprenorphine-Naloxone Treatment for Pre-release Opioid Dependent Inmates in Puerto Rico. Journal of Addiction Medicine, 1(6), 126-132.

Highfield, D. A., Schwartz, R. P., Jaffe, J. H., Callaman, J., O'Grady, K. E. (2007). Intravenous and intranasal heroin dependent treatment seekers: Similarities and differences. Addiction, 102(11), 1816-23.

Katz, E. C., Brown, B. S., Schwartz, R. P., King, S. D., Weintraub, E., Barksdale, W. (2007). Impact of role induction on long-term drug treatment outcomes. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 26, 81-90.

Schwartz, R. P., Highfield, D. A., Jaffe, J. H., Callaman, J. M., O'Grady, K. E. (2007). A randomized controlled trial of interim methadone maintenance: 10 month-follow-up. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 86, 30-36.

Schwartz, R. P., McKenzie, M., Rich J. D. (2007). Opioid addiction and incarceration: an overview. Medicine and Health/Rhode Island, 90, 157-158.